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Featured Article

May 29, 2018

FBI, DHS Warn US Business about North Korean Hacking

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released a joint Technical Alert (TA) that identifies two families of malware—referred to as Joanap and Brambul—used by the North Korean government. The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA.

In conjunction with the release of this TA, NCCIC has released a Malware Analysis Report (MAR) that provides analysis on samples of Joanap and Brambul malware.

HIDDEN COBRA – Joanap Backdoor Trojan and Brambul Server Message Block Worm

Systems Affected

Network systems

Overview

This joint Technical Alert (TA) is the result of analytic efforts between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Working with U.S. government partners, DHS and FBI identified Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and other indicators of compromise (IOCs) associated with two families of malware used by the North Korean government:

  • a remote access tool (RAT), commonly known as Joanap; and
  • a Server Message Block (SMB) worm, commonly known as Brambul.

The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA. For more information on HIDDEN COBRA activity, visit https://www.us-cert.gov/hiddencobra.

FBI has high confidence that HIDDEN COBRA actors are using the IP addresses—listed in this report’s IOC files—to maintain a presence on victims’ networks and enable network exploitation. DHS and FBI are distributing these IP addresses and other IOCs to enable network defense and reduce exposure to any North Korean government malicious cyber activity.

This alert also includes suggested response actions to the IOCs provided, recommended mitigation techniques, and information on how to report incidents. If users or administrators detect activity associated with these malware families, they should immediately flag it, report it to the DHS National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) or the FBI Cyber Watch (CyWatch), and give it the highest priority for enhanced mitigation.

See the following links for a downloadable copy of IOCs:

NCCIC conducted analysis on four malware samples and produced a Malware Analysis Report (MAR). MAR-10135536.3 – RAT/Worm examines the tactics, techniques, and procedures observed in the malware. Visit MAR-10135536.3 – RAT/Worm for the report and associated IOCs.

Description

According to reporting of trusted third parties, HIDDEN COBRA actors have likely been using both Joanap and Brambul malware since at least 2009 to target multiple victims globally and in the United States—including the media, aerospace, financial, and critical infrastructure sectors. Users and administrators should review the information related to Joanap and Brambul from the Operation Blockbuster Destructive Malware Report [1] in conjunction with the IP addresses listed in the .csv and .stix files provided within this alert. Like many of the families of malware used by HIDDEN COBRA actors, Joanap, Brambul, and other previously reported custom malware tools, may be found on compromised network nodes. Each malware tool has different purposes and functionalities.

Joanap malware is a fully functional RAT that is able to receive multiple commands, which can be issued by HIDDEN COBRA actors remotely from a command and control server. Joanap typically infects a system as a file dropped by other HIDDEN COBRA malware, which users unknowingly downloaded either when they visit sites compromised by HIDDEN COBRA actors, or when they open malicious email attachments.

During analysis of the infrastructure used by Joanap malware, the U.S. Government identified 87 compromised network nodes. The countries in which the infected IP addresses are registered are as follows:

  • Argentina
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Egypt
  • India
  • Iran
  • Jordan
  • Pakistan
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sweden
  • Taiwan
  • Tunisia

Malware often infects servers and systems without the knowledge of system users and owners. If the malware can establish persistence, it could move laterally through a victim’s network and any connected networks to infect nodes beyond those identified in this alert.

Brambul malware is a brute-force authentication worm that spreads through SMB shares. SMBs enable shared access to files between users on a network. Brambul malware typically spreads by using a list of hard-coded login credentials to launch a brute-force password attack against an SMB protocol for access to a victim’s networks.

Technical Details

Joanap

Joanap is a two-stage malware used to establish peer-to-peer communications and to manage botnets designed to enable other operations. Joanap malware provides HIDDEN COBRA actors with the ability to exfiltrate data, drop and run secondary payloads, and initialize proxy communications on a compromised Windows device. Other notable functions include

  • file management,
  • process management,
  • creation and deletion of directories, and
  • node management.

Analysis indicates the malware encodes data using Rivest Cipher 4 encryption to protect its communication with HIDDEN COBRA actors. Once installed, the malware creates a log entry within the Windows System Directory in a file named mssscardprv.ax. HIDDEN COBRA actors use this file to capture and store victims’ information such as the host IP address, host name, and the current system time.

Brambul

Brambul malware is a malicious Windows 32-bit SMB worm that functions as a service dynamic link library file or a portable executable file often dropped and installed onto victims’ networks by dropper malware. When executed, the malware attempts to establish contact with victim systems and IP addresses on victims’ local subnets. If successful, the application attempts to gain unauthorized access via the SMB protocol (ports 139 and 445) by launching brute-force password attacks using a list of embedded passwords. Additionally, the malware generates random IP addresses for further attacks.

Analysts suspect the malware targets insecure or unsecured user accounts and spreads through poorly secured network shares. Once the malware establishes unauthorized access on the victim’s systems, it communicates information about victim’s systems to HIDDEN COBRA actors using malicious email addresses. This information includes the IP address and host name—as well as the username and password—of each victim’s system. HIDDEN COBRA actors can use this information to remotely access a compromised system via the SMB protocol.

Analysis of a newer variant of Brambul malware identified the following built-in functions for remote operations:

  • harvesting system information,
  • accepting command-line arguments,
  • generating and executing a suicide script,
  • propagating across the network using SMB,
  • brute forcing SMB login credentials, and
  • generating Simple Mail Transport Protocol email messages containing target host system information.

Detection and Response

This alert’s IOC files provide HIDDEN COBRA IOCs related to Joanap and Brambul. DHS and FBI recommend that network administrators review the information provided, identify whether any of the provided IP addresses fall within their organizations’ allocated IP address space, and—if found—take necessary measures to remove the malware.

When reviewing network perimeter logs for the IP addresses, organizations may find instances of these IP addresses attempting to connect to their systems. Upon reviewing the traffic from these IP addresses, system owners may find some traffic relates to malicious activity and some traffic relates to legitimate activity.

Impact

A successful network intrusion can have severe impacts, particularly if the compromise becomes public. Possible impacts include

  • temporary or permanent loss of sensitive or proprietary information,
  • disruption to regular operations,
  • financial losses incurred to restore systems and files, and
  • potential harm to an organization’s reputation.

Solution

Mitigation Strategies

DHS recommends that users and administrators use the following best practices as preventive measures to protect their computer networks:

  • Keep operating systems and software up-to-date with the latest patches. Most attacks target vulnerable applications and operating systems. Patching with the latest updates greatly reduces the number of exploitable entry points available to an attacker.
  • Maintain up-to-date antivirus software, and scan all software downloaded from the internet before executing.
  • Restrict users’ abilities (permissions) to install and run unwanted software applications, and apply the principle of least privilege to all systems and services. Restricting these privileges may prevent malware from running or limit its capability to spread through the network.
  • Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments. If a user opens a malicious attachment and enables macros, embedded code will execute the malware on the machine. Enterprises and organizations should consider blocking email messages from suspicious sources that contain attachments. For information on safely handling email attachments, see Using Caution with Email Attachments. Follow safe practices when browsing the web. See Good Security Habits and Safeguarding Your Data for additional details.
  • Disable Microsoft’s File and Printer Sharing service, if not required by the user’s organization. If this service is required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication. See Choosing and Protecting Passwords for more information on creating strong passwords.
  • Enable a personal firewall on organization workstations and configure it to deny unsolicited connection requests.

Response to Unauthorized Network Access

Contact DHS or your local FBI office immediately. To report an intrusion and request resources for incident response or technical assistance, contact DHS NCCIC (NCCICCustomerService@hq.dhs.gov or 888-282-0870), FBI through a local field office, or FBI’s Cyber Division (CyWatch@fbi.gov or 855-292-3937).

MAR-10135536-3 - HIDDEN COBRA RAT/Worm

Notification

This report is provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained within. The DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service, referenced in this bulletin or otherwise.

This document is marked TLP:WHITE. Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol, see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp.

Summary

Description

This submission includes four unique files. The first is an installer for additional malware: a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) and a malicious Dynamic Link Library (DLL) that functions as a Server Message Block (SMB) Worm. The fourth file is another SMB worm in the form of a Windows 32-bit executable.

Both SMB worms attempt to spread locally and to random IP addresses on the public Internet by attempting to brute force vulnerable systems using a built-in list of common passwords. The RAT included with the SMB worm provides the attacker with the ability to deliver additional malware, run local commands, and exfiltrate data.

For a downloadable copy of IOCs see:

Emails (2)

misswang8107@gmail.com

redhat@gmail.com

Submitted Files (4)

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885 (4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A7...)

a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717 (scardprv.dll)

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781 (Wmmvsvc.dll)

fe7d35d19af5f5ae2939457a06868754b8bdd022e1ff5bdbe4e7c135c48f9a16 (298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E7169...)

Findings

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

Tags

backdoortrojanworm

Details

Name

4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749

Size

208896 bytes

Type

PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows

MD5

4731cbaee7aca37b596e38690160a749

SHA1

80fac6361184a3e24b33f6acb8688a6b7276b0f2

SHA256

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

SHA512

9fdc1bf087d3e2fa80ff4ed749b11a2b3f863bed7a59850f6330fc1467c38eed052eee0337d2f82f9fe8e145f68199b966ae3c08f7ad1475b665beb8cd29f6d7

ssdeep

6144:M6atGpHk4NdSksOBbNUyb4ajb1TWiYW9ebYwtJEGLYMYR4:Msdk4NdSksOv

Entropy

7.731026

Antivirus

AVG

BackDoor.Generic14.ARHX

Ahnlab

Trojan/Win32.Npkon

Avira

BDS/Joanap.A.11

BitDefender

Gen:Variant.Barys.57573

ClamAV

Win.Trojan.Agent-1388737

Cyren

W32/Zegost.AA.gen!Eldorado

ESET

Win32/Scadprv.A trojan

Emsisoft

Gen:Variant.Barys.57573 (B)

F-secure

Gen:Variant.Barys.57573

Ikarus

Worm.Win32.Agent

K7

Backdoor ( 04c4b9d11 )

McAfee

W32/FunCash!worm

Microsoft Security Essentials

Backdoor:Win32/Joanap.J!dha

NANOAV

Trojan.Win32.Agent.crilzb

Quick Heal

Backdoor.Joanap

Sophos

Mal/EncPk-AGS

Symantec

Trojan.Gen.2

Systweak

trojan.agent

TrendMicro

BKDR_JOANAP.AC

TrendMicro House Call

BKDR_JOANAP.AC

Vir.IT eXplorer

Backdoor.Win32.Generic.ARHX

VirusBlokAda

Worm.Agent

Zillya!

Worm.Agent.Win32.3373

nProtect

Worm/W32.Agent.208896.AK

Yara Rules

hidden_cobra_consolidated.yara

rule Enfal_Generic { meta: author = "NCCIC trusted 3rd party" incident = "10135536" date = "2018-04-12" category = "hidden_cobra" family = "BRAMBUL,JOANAP" MD5_1 = "483B95B1498B615A1481345270BFF87D" MD5_2 = "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749" MD5_3 = "CD60FD107BAACCAFA6C24C1478C345C8" MD5_4 = "298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945" Info = "Detects Hidden Cobra SMB Worm / RAT" strings: $s0 = {6D737373636172647072762E6178} $s1 = {6E3472626872697138393076393D3032333D30312A2628542D30513332354A314E3B4C4B} $s2 = {72656468617440676D61696C2E636F6D} $s3 = {6D69737377616E673831303740676D61696C2E636F6D} $s4 = {534232755365435632564474} $s5 = {794159334D6559704275415756426341} $s6 = {705641325941774242347A41346167664B6232614F7A4259} $s7 = {AE8591916D586DE4F6FB8EE2F0BBF1F9} $s8 = {F96D5DD36D6D9A87DD6D506D6D6D516D} $s9 = {43616E6E6F74206372656174652072656D6F74652066696C652E} $s10 = {43616E6E6F74206F70656E2072656D6F74652066696C65} $s11 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056} $s12 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056E88C060000E9A9000000663D557D7512} $s13 = {663D567D750F8D85FCFEFFFF5056E891070000EB7C663D577D} $s14 = {3141327A3342347935433678374438773945307624465F754774487349724A71} $s15 = {393032356A6864686F333965686532} condition: ($s0) or ($s1) or ($s2) or ($s3) or ($s4 and $s5 and $s6) or ($s7 and $s8) or ($s9 and $s10 and $s11) or ($s12 and $s13) or ($s14 and $s15) }

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata

Compile Date

2011-09-14 01:53:24-04:00

Import Hash

e8cd12071a8e823ebc434c8ee3e23203

PE Sections

MD5

Name

Raw Size

Entropy

bf69e0e64bdafa28b31e3c2134e1d696

header

4096

0.658046

27f1df91dc992ababc89460f771a6026

.text

24576

6.227301

249e10a4ad0a58c3db84eb2f69db5db5

.rdata

4096

4.367702

88b5582d4d361c92e9234abf0942ed9e

.data

4096

2.546586

a18b7869b3bfd4a2ef0d03c96fa09221

.rsrc

172032

7.969250

Packers/Compilers/Cryptors

Installer VISE Custom

Process List

Process

PID

PPID

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885.exe

2628

(2588)

Relationships

077d9e0e12...

Dropped

a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717

077d9e0e12...

Dropped

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

Description

This 32-bit Windows executable file drops two malicious applications.

The first (a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717) is a fully functioning RAT.

The second application (ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781) is a SMB worm that will spread to local subnets and external networks.

a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717

Tags

backdoorbottrojanworm

Details

Name

scardprv.dll

Size

77824 bytes

Type

PE32 executable (DLL) (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows

MD5

4613f51087f01715bf9132c704aea2c2

SHA1

6b1ddf0e63e04146d68cd33b0e18e668b29035c4

SHA256

a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717

SHA512

37fa5336d1554557250e4a3bcb4ccfca79f4873264cb161dee340d35a2f8f17f7853fe942809bb343ac1eae0a37122b5e8fd703a9b820ec96abb65c8327c1b6a

ssdeep

768:qtT2AxNtcgpqLepcy2y6/chYdP8KuSFM+Cs5CBaho9S4AJKqBz8MZdVsrQVBnVGa:qwONtBqL1dDMrs5CN9S4A3HOYBnVL

Entropy

6.138177

Antivirus

AVG

Agent3.BAPF

Ahnlab

Trojan/Win32.Dllbot

Avira

TR/Gendal.6762100

BitDefender

Gen:Variant.Graftor.Elzob.3935

ClamAV

Win.Trojan.Agent-1388765

ESET

a variant of Win32/Scadprv.A trojan

Emsisoft

Gen:Variant.Graftor.Elzob.3935 (B)

F-secure

Gen:Variant.Graftor.Elzob.3935

Ikarus

Worm.Win32.Agent

K7

Trojan ( 0001659c1 )

McAfee

W32/FunCash!worm

Microsoft Security Essentials

Backdoor:Win32/Joanap.B!dha

NANOAV

Trojan.Win32.Agent.cwccco

Quick Heal

Backdoor.Duzzer.A5

Sophos

Mal/Generic-L

Symantec

Backdoor.Joanap

Systweak

malware.gen-20120501

TrendMicro

BKDR_JOANAP.AC

TrendMicro House Call

BKDR_JOANAP.AC

Vir.IT eXplorer

Trojan.Win32.Agent3.BAPF

VirusBlokAda

Worm.Agent

Zillya!

Worm.Agent.Win32.5702

nProtect

Worm/W32.Agent.77824.CJ

Yara Rules

hidden_cobra_consolidated.yara

rule Enfal_Generic { meta: author = "NCCIC trusted 3rd party" incident = "10135536" date = "2018-04-12" category = "hidden_cobra" family = "BRAMBUL,JOANAP" MD5_1 = "483B95B1498B615A1481345270BFF87D" MD5_2 = "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749" MD5_3 = "CD60FD107BAACCAFA6C24C1478C345C8" MD5_4 = "298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945" Info = "Detects Hidden Cobra SMB Worm / RAT" strings: $s0 = {6D737373636172647072762E6178} $s1 = {6E3472626872697138393076393D3032333D30312A2628542D30513332354A314E3B4C4B} $s2 = {72656468617440676D61696C2E636F6D} $s3 = {6D69737377616E673831303740676D61696C2E636F6D} $s4 = {534232755365435632564474} $s5 = {794159334D6559704275415756426341} $s6 = {705641325941774242347A41346167664B6232614F7A4259} $s7 = {AE8591916D586DE4F6FB8EE2F0BBF1F9} $s8 = {F96D5DD36D6D9A87DD6D506D6D6D516D} $s9 = {43616E6E6F74206372656174652072656D6F74652066696C652E} $s10 = {43616E6E6F74206F70656E2072656D6F74652066696C65} $s11 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056} $s12 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056E88C060000E9A9000000663D557D7512} $s13 = {663D567D750F8D85FCFEFFFF5056E891070000EB7C663D577D} $s14 = {3141327A3342347935433678374438773945307624465F754774487349724A71} $s15 = {393032356A6864686F333965686532} condition: ($s0) or ($s1) or ($s2) or ($s3) or ($s4 and $s5 and $s6) or ($s7 and $s8) or ($s9 and $s10 and $s11) or ($s12 and $s13) or ($s14 and $s15) }

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata

Compile Date

2011-09-14 01:38:38-04:00

Import Hash

f6f7b2e00921129d18061822197111cd

PE Sections

MD5

Name

Raw Size

Entropy

c745765d5ae0458d76c721b8a82eca52

header

4096

0.763991

f16ff24a6d95e0e0711eccae4283bbe5

.text

40960

6.506011

b89bb8a288d739a27d7021183336413c

.rdata

20480

6.655349

fcd7ede94211c9d653bd8cc776feb8be

.data

4096

4.326483

56dc69f697f36158eefefdde895f39b6

.rsrc

4096

0.613739

20601cf5d6aecb9837dcc1747847c5a2

.reloc

4096

4.068756

Packers/Compilers/Cryptors

Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 DLL

Relationships

a1c483b0ee...

Dropped_By

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

Description

This 32-bit Windows DLL is written to disk and then loaded by the file "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749".

This malware has been identified as a RAT, providing a remote actor with the ability to exfiltrate data, drop and run secondary payloads, and provide proxy capabilities on a compromised Windows device. The malware binds to port 443 and listens for incoming connections from a remote operator, using the Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) encryption algorithm to protect communications with its Command and Control (C2).

The malware also creates a log entry in a file named “mssscardprv.ax”, located in the %WINDIR%\system32 folder. The log entry includes the victim's Internet Protocol (IP) address, host name, and current system time.

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

Tags

backdoorbottrojanworm

Details

Name

Wmmvsvc.dll

Size

91664 bytes

Type

PE32 executable (DLL) (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows

MD5

e86c2f4fc88918246bf697b6a404c3ea

SHA1

9b7609349a4b9128b9db8f11ac1c77728258862c

SHA256

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

SHA512

f6097c66a526ba7a3c918b1c7fccae03c812046d642a4adb62ee7a24cbcee889c0348020ae7e2e82ee3f284b311f049ed596edb22b90153cadc11c646d4f9a45

ssdeep

768:9eY/pEwKWcwP/bY4XxlGLup3Tq1LpDLJkDcw3f9zj:MitnU4viJJDw3Z

Entropy

3.156854

Antivirus

AVG

PSW.Generic9.ACQQ

Ahnlab

Trojan/Win32.Dllbot

Avira

BDS/Joanap.A.8

BitDefender

Gen:Variant.Symmi.49274

ClamAV

Win.Trojan.Agent-1388727

Cyren

W32/Trojan.WXKV-0327

ESET

a variant of Win32/Agent.NJF worm

Emsisoft

Gen:Variant.Symmi.49274 (B)

F-secure

Gen:Variant.Symmi.49274

Ikarus

Worm.Win32.Agent

K7

Trojan ( 00515bda1 )

McAfee

Generic PWS.tr

Microsoft Security Essentials

Backdoor:Win32/Joanap.A!dha

NANOAV

Trojan.Win32.Agent.cqilax

NetGate

Trojan.Win32.Malware

Quick Heal

Backdoor.Joanap

Sophos

Mal/Generic-L

Symantec

W32.Brambul

Vir.IT eXplorer

Trojan.Win32.Generic.ACQQ

VirusBlokAda

Worm.Agent

Zillya!

Worm.Agent.Win32.3549

nProtect

Worm/W32.Agent.91664

Yara Rules

hidden_cobra_consolidated.yara

rule Enfal_Generic { meta: author = "NCCIC trusted 3rd party" incident = "10135536" date = "2018-04-12" category = "hidden_cobra" family = "BRAMBUL,JOANAP" MD5_1 = "483B95B1498B615A1481345270BFF87D" MD5_2 = "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749" MD5_3 = "CD60FD107BAACCAFA6C24C1478C345C8" MD5_4 = "298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945" Info = "Detects Hidden Cobra SMB Worm / RAT" strings: $s0 = {6D737373636172647072762E6178} $s1 = {6E3472626872697138393076393D3032333D30312A2628542D30513332354A314E3B4C4B} $s2 = {72656468617440676D61696C2E636F6D} $s3 = {6D69737377616E673831303740676D61696C2E636F6D} $s4 = {534232755365435632564474} $s5 = {794159334D6559704275415756426341} $s6 = {705641325941774242347A41346167664B6232614F7A4259} $s7 = {AE8591916D586DE4F6FB8EE2F0BBF1F9} $s8 = {F96D5DD36D6D9A87DD6D506D6D6D516D} $s9 = {43616E6E6F74206372656174652072656D6F74652066696C652E} $s10 = {43616E6E6F74206F70656E2072656D6F74652066696C65} $s11 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056} $s12 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056E88C060000E9A9000000663D557D7512} $s13 = {663D567D750F8D85FCFEFFFF5056E891070000EB7C663D577D} $s14 = {3141327A3342347935433678374438773945307624465F754774487349724A71} $s15 = {393032356A6864686F333965686532} condition: ($s0) or ($s1) or ($s2) or ($s3) or ($s4 and $s5 and $s6) or ($s7 and $s8) or ($s9 and $s10 and $s11) or ($s12 and $s13) or ($s14 and $s15) }

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata

Compile Date

2011-09-14 11:42:30-04:00

Import Hash

f0087d7b90876a2769f2229c6789fcf3

Company Name

Microsoft Corporation

File Description

Microsoft XML Encoder/Transcoder

Internal Name

xpsshrm.dll

Legal Copyright

© Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Original Filename

xpsshrm.dll

Product Name

Microsoft® Windows Media Services

Product Version

9.00.00.4503

PE Sections

MD5

Name

Raw Size

Entropy

037e97300efd533dd48d334d30bdc408

header

4096

0.759334

4b5019185bb0b82273442dae3f15f105

.text

24576

6.083997

9e5a1cfda72f8944cd5e35e33a2a73b0

.rdata

4096

3.267725

47982ac1b20cac03adcfd62f5881b79c

.data

49152

1.087883

b971ab49349a660c70cb6987b7fb3ed3

.rsrc

4096

1.140488

ad5750c9584c0eba32643810ab6e8a53

.reloc

4096

2.515288

Packers/Compilers/Cryptors

Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 DLL

Relationships

ea46ed5aed...

Dropped_By

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

ea46ed5aed...

Connected_To

redhat@gmail.com

ea46ed5aed...

Connected_To

misswang8107@gmail.com

Description

This file is a malicious 32-bit Windows DLL that is written to disk then loaded by the file "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749".

When executed, the DLL attempts to contact all of the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses on the victim's local subnet. If the malware is able to connect to these IP addresses, it will attempt to gain unauthorized access via the SMB protocol on port 445 using a brute-force password attack. The malware contains an embedded password list consisting of commonly used passwords and generates random external IP addresses, which it attempts to attack.

If the malware successfully gains access to another system, it will send an email containing the system's IP address, hostname, username, and password to the following addresses:

--Begin email addresses--
redhat@gmail.com
misswang8107@gmail.com
--End email addresses--

The malware uses the victim's system folder to create a shared folder named "adnim$" by running the following commands via a remotely run service:

--Begin commands utilized to create SMB share--
cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$=%SystemRoot%
cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$=%%SystemRoot%% /GRANT:%s,FULL
--End commands utilized to create SMB share--

The malware will then copy itself to newly created shared folder as a file named "mssscardprv.ax". After copying the malware to the new system it then runs the file on the victim system using a malicious service. The adnim$ share will then be deleted from the remote system using the following command:

--Begin command used to delete share--
'cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$ /delete'
--End command used to delete share--

The malware determines if Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is enabled by attempting to connect to port 3389. If it is able to connect to this port, the malware will report RDP is available on the compromised system. This information is provided to the operator using the malicious email address provided earlier.

This malware can communicate with the RAT identified as "scardprv.dll" (4613f51087f01715bf9132c704aea2c2). The communication is protected with the Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) encryption protocol. When attempting to propagate, the malware uses the following three usernames combined with a password brute-force attack:

--Begin malicious usernames used by SMB worm--
Administrateur
Administrador
Administrator
--End malicious usernames used by SMB worm--

Although the malware uses numerous embedded passwords in its brute force attacks, within our environment the malware consistently used the following "Lan Manager Response" in its SMB attacks:

--Begin static Lan Manager response--
8C15084FA541079A000000000000000000
--End static Lan Manager response--

This hexadecimal value may be useful in detecting this worm as it communicates over port 445 and attempts to spread. Specifically, when the malware attempts to run a remote service to create the "adnim$" share, the following network traffic is generated:

--Begin network signature--
ASCII: cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$=%SystemRoot% /GRANT:Administrator,FULL
HEX: 636D642E657865202F71202F63206E65742073686172652061646E696D243D2553797374656D526F6F7425202F4752414E543A41646D696E6973747261746F722C46554C4C
--End network signature--

fe7d35d19af5f5ae2939457a06868754b8bdd022e1ff5bdbe4e7c135c48f9a16

Tags

backdoortrojanworm

Details

Name

298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945

Size

86016 bytes

Type

PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows

MD5

298775b04a166ff4b8fbd3609e716945

SHA1

2e0f666831f64d7383a11b444e2c16b38231f481

SHA256

fe7d35d19af5f5ae2939457a06868754b8bdd022e1ff5bdbe4e7c135c48f9a16

SHA512

adc9bb5a2116134ddf57d1b1765d5981c55828aa8c6719964b0e2eeb6c9068a2acaa98c2e03227a406a4fbfa2f007f5eb9f57a61e3749b8eb0d73b1881328fbf

ssdeep

768:i+cDn8nAQ5Toz4c0+u5jrdXs+W+aCNkiC8xeC3cs:i+M8ndTozOn5jxF/US0s

Entropy

2.873816

Antivirus

ClamAV

Win.Trojan.Agent-1388727

ESET

a variant of Win32/Agent.NVC worm

McAfee

GenericRXCB-TI!298775B04A16

Microsoft Security Essentials

Backdoor:Win32/Joanap.A!dha

Symantec

Heur.AdvML.B

Yara Rules

hidden_cobra_consolidated.yara

rule Enfal_Generic { meta: author = "NCCIC trusted 3rd party" incident = "10135536" date = "2018-04-12" category = "hidden_cobra" family = "BRAMBUL,JOANAP" MD5_1 = "483B95B1498B615A1481345270BFF87D" MD5_2 = "4731CBAEE7ACA37B596E38690160A749" MD5_3 = "CD60FD107BAACCAFA6C24C1478C345C8" MD5_4 = "298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945" Info = "Detects Hidden Cobra SMB Worm / RAT" strings: $s0 = {6D737373636172647072762E6178} $s1 = {6E3472626872697138393076393D3032333D30312A2628542D30513332354A314E3B4C4B} $s2 = {72656468617440676D61696C2E636F6D} $s3 = {6D69737377616E673831303740676D61696C2E636F6D} $s4 = {534232755365435632564474} $s5 = {794159334D6559704275415756426341} $s6 = {705641325941774242347A41346167664B6232614F7A4259} $s7 = {AE8591916D586DE4F6FB8EE2F0BBF1F9} $s8 = {F96D5DD36D6D9A87DD6D506D6D6D516D} $s9 = {43616E6E6F74206372656174652072656D6F74652066696C652E} $s10 = {43616E6E6F74206F70656E2072656D6F74652066696C65} $s11 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056} $s12 = {663D547D75128D85FCFEFFFF5056E88C060000E9A9000000663D557D7512} $s13 = {663D567D750F8D85FCFEFFFF5056E891070000EB7C663D577D} $s14 = {3141327A3342347935433678374438773945307624465F754774487349724A71} $s15 = {393032356A6864686F333965686532} condition: ($s0) or ($s1) or ($s2) or ($s3) or ($s4 and $s5 and $s6) or ($s7 and $s8) or ($s9 and $s10 and $s11) or ($s12 and $s13) or ($s14 and $s15) }

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata

Compile Date

2018-01-05 01:22:45-05:00

Import Hash

9f298eba36baa47b98a60cf36fdb2301

PE Sections

MD5

Name

Raw Size

Entropy

8a5b06109c3bd4323fa3318f9874d529

header

4096

0.703885

413f30d4d86037b75958b45b9efbe1de

.text

20480

6.302858

82b41fefc9aa74a2430f1421fd5fe5b3

.rdata

4096

3.748024

b6f17870ca5f45d4c75e18024e6e1180

.data

53248

1.067897

cda5ef1038742e5ef46b9cfa269b0434

.rsrc

4096

0.608792

Packers/Compilers/Cryptors

Microsoft Visual C++ v6.0

Process List

Process

PID

PPID

fe7d35d19af5f5ae2939457a06868754b8bdd022e1ff5bdbe4e7c135c48f9a16.exe

2436

(2408)

Description

This file is a malicious 32-bit Windows executable file designed to scan the local network and the Internet for machines that are accessible and have open SMB ports. Once the malware gains access to a remote machine, it will deliver a malicious payload. This file accepts the following command-line arguments for execution:

--Begin arguments--
-i ==> Create service
-u ==> Control and delete service
-s ==> Start service
-r ==> Run not as a service
-k ==> ControlService
--End arguments--


When executed with the "-i" argument, the malware installs and executes itself as the following service:

--Begin service information--
ServiceName = "RdpCertification"
DisplayName = "Remote Desktop Certification Services"
DesiredAccess = SERVICE_ALL_ACCESS
ServiceType = SERVICE_WIN32_OWN_PROCESS|SERVICE_INTERACTIVE_PROCESS
StartType = SERVICE_AUTO_START
BinaryPathName = "%current directory%\298775B04A166FF4B8FBD3609E716945.exe"
--End service information--


The malware creates a mutual exclusion (Mutex) object named "PlatFormSDK20150201", then generates a list of IP addresses using a domain generation algorithm (DGA). The DGA uses the system time in the algorithm to create the list of IP addresses.

It generates network traffic over Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ports 80 and 445 via the victims' IP addresses and the generated IP addresses.

Sample HTTP request:

--Begin HTTP request--
OPTIONS / HTTP/1.1
translate: f
User-Agent: Microsoft-WebDAV-MiniRedir/5.1.2600
Host: 159.154.100.0
Content-Length: 0
Connection: Keep-Alive
--End HTTP request--

Once successfully connected to other Windows hosts or the generated IP addresses using port 445, the malware attempts to use a hard-coded list of passwords for SMB connections. If the password is correctly guessed, a file share is established. The malware uses the following methods to access shares on the remote systems:

To gain access to remote systems it uses ($IPC) share via “\\remote system IP\$IPC”
It checks for existing shares by using “\\hostname\adnim$\system32”

It will create a new share named "adnim$" using the following command:

--Begin new share command--
“cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$=%SystemRoot%”
“cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$=%%SystemRoot%% /GRANT:%s,FULL”
--End new share command—


Once a file share is successfully established, the malware uploads a copy of a payload "C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\TMP1.tmp" and installs it as a service. The malware payload that is uploaded and then run on the newly infected host was not available at the time of analysis.

The remote network share is removed after infection using the following command:

--Begin command--
“cmd.exe /q /c net share adnim$ /delete”
--End command--

Once the payload has been uploaded and executed, the malware uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send collected data. The data provides infection status to a remote operator.

Displayed below are the domain names of the service providers used to send data:

--Begin SMTP domain information--
"www.hotmail.com"
--End SMTP domain information--

Displayed is the structure of the email sent:

--Begin email structure format--
SUBJECT: %s%s%s
TO: Joana <%s>%s
FROM: <%s>%s
DATA%s
RCPT TO: <%s>%s
MAIL FROM: <%s>%s
AUTH LOGIN%s
HELO %s%s
--End email structure format--


Displayed is a list of brute force passwords used to establish connections:

--Begin brute force password--
!@#$
!@#$%
!@#$%^
!@#$%^&
!@#$%^&*
!@#$%^&*()
"KGS!@#$%"
0000
00000
000000
00000000
1111
11111
111111
11111111
11122212
1212
121212
123123
123321
1234
12345
123456
1234567
12345678
123456789
123456^%$#@!
1234qwer
123abc
123asd
123qwe
1313
1q2w3e
1q2w3e4r
1qaz2wsx
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
4321
54321
654321
6969
666666
7777
8888
88888
888888
8888888
88888888
Admin
abc123
abc@123
abcd
admin
admin123
admin!23
admin!@#
administrator
administrador
asdf
asdfg
asdfgh
asdf123
asdf!23
baseball
backup
blank
cisco
compaq
control
computer
cookie123
database
dbpassword
db1234
default
dell
enable
fish
foobar
gateway
guest
golf
harley
home
iloveyou
internet
letmein
Login
login
love
manager
oracle
owner
pass
passwd
password
p@ssword
password1
password!
passw0rd
Password1
pa55w0rd
pw123
q1w2e3
q1w2e3r4
q1w2e3r4t5
q1w2e3r4t5y6
qazwsx
qazwsxedc
qwer
qwert
qwerty
!QAZxsw2
root
secret
server
sqlexec
shadow
super
sybase
temp
temp123
test
test!
test1
test123
test!23
winxp
win2000
win2003
Welcome1
Welcome123
xxxx
yxcv
zxcv
Administrator
Admin
--End brute force password--

redhat@gmail.com

Details

Address

redhat@gmail.com

Relationships

redhat@gmail.com

Connected_From

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

misswang8107@gmail.com

Details

Address

misswang8107@gmail.com

Relationships

misswang8107@gmail.com

Connected_From

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

Relationship Summary

077d9e0e12...

Dropped

a1c483b0ee740291b91b11e18dd05f0a460127acfc19d47b446d11cd0e26d717

077d9e0e12...

Dropped

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

a1c483b0ee...

Dropped_By

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

ea46ed5aed...

Dropped_By

077d9e0e12357d27f7f0c336239e961a7049971446f7a3f10268d9439ef67885

ea46ed5aed...

Connected_To

redhat@gmail.com

ea46ed5aed...

Connected_To

misswang8107@gmail.com

redhat@gmail.com

Connected_From

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

misswang8107@gmail.com

Connected_From

ea46ed5aed900cd9f01156a1cd446cbb3e10191f9f980e9f710ea1c20440c781

Recommendations

NCCIC would like to remind users and administrators to consider using the following best practices to strengthen the security posture of their organization's systems. Any configuration changes should be reviewed by system owners and administrators prior to implementation to avoid unwanted impacts.

  • Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines.
  • Keep operating system patches up-to-date.
  • Disable File and Printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.
  • Restrict users' ability (permissions) to install and run unwanted software applications. Do not add users to the local administrators group unless required.
  • Enforce a strong password policy and implement regular password changes.
  • Exercise caution when opening e-mail attachments even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known.
  • Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations, configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.
  • Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.
  • Scan for and remove suspicious e-mail attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).
  • Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.
  • Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g., USB thumbdrives, external drives, CDs, etc.).
  • Scan all software downloaded from the Internet prior to executing.
  • Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats and implement appropriate ACLs.

Additional information on malware incident prevention and handling can be found in NIST's Special Publication 800-83, Guide to Malware Incident Prevention & Handling for Desktops and Laptops.

Contact Information

NCCIC continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can help by answering a very short series of questions about this product at the following URL.

Document FAQ

What is a MAR? A Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is intended to provide organizations with more detailed malware analysis acquired via manual reverse engineering. To request additional analysis, please contact US-CERT and provide information regarding the level of desired analysis.

Can I edit this document? This document is not to be edited in any way by recipients. All comments or questions related to this document should be directed to the NCCIC at 1-888-282-0870 or soc@us-cert.gov.

Can I submit malware to NCCIC? Malware samples can be submitted via three methods:

NCCIC encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found on the NCCIC/US-CERT homepage.

Revisions

  • May 29, 2018: Initial version






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